Monday, February 24, 2020
Religious Beliefs and Government Leadership - Research Paper Example 1-2). Although Romney (2007) cites the influence of religion in the principles of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s founders, he also states that times has changed, and the emergence of cultural diversity in America requires leaders to maintain their objectivity when making public policy. With his speech, it is evident that Romney supports the notion of Church-State separation, although he admits that his Mormon faith helped shape his values and perspectives in life. In analyzing the speech of Obama and Romney, one can say that both leaders support the separation of Church and State affairs, particularly in their presidential candidacy and in creating leadership policies. For instance, both leaders cite the necessity of providing state benefits and programs that will benefit the majority, regardless of religious beliefs. Thus, although religion influences the decisions of public leaders, politicians should exercise control over their personal opinions lest their opinions violate the beliefs and right s of the majority. However, considering RomneyÃ¢â¬â¢s argument on faith as a source of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s fundamental moral principles, one can say that religion, in one way or another, influences how leaders develop their strategies (p. 4). This idea is also evident in ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s (2006b) argument about the religious freedom through defining ethics in social interactions (paras. 18-23). Consequently, as a political leader, Obama argues that leaders should take concern of their policies, particularly in the way those policies affect the relationships of the majority. Considering the two speeches, one can say that leaders cannot escape from the influence of religion in their policies, and this is because of the innate tendency of human beings to draw conclusions from our... This paper stresses that the Church-State separation may be considered one of the most challenging aspects of the society, considering that one should maintain objective judgment on critical socio-political aspects. This is particularly true among political leaders, who have to face the challenges of leadership while aligning their values with their existing leadership policies and religious beliefs. For instance, the arguments of Obama, Romney, Cuomo, and Kenney illustrate the challenges of becoming a political leader, which is resolving a crisis while maintaining their diplomacy and religious neutrality. The author diclares that Church-State separation also regulates the power of both political and religious leaders wherein neither can advise the people on their political and religious preferences, particularly during elections. considering the potential biased portrayal of religious traditions in the current pluralistic American society, Obama states that leadership strategies sho uld focus on generating policies that strengthen diplomacy as this ensures objectivity. Relatively, as Obama focuses on the influence of religion on interactions, one can say that ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s view on his political office is merely a neutral ground wherein he can discuss policies without having to consider his religious opinions. This report makes a conclusion that Cuomo and Kennedy support the idea of isolating oneself from religious and political influence when creating public policies. Considering that legal enforceable rule on Church-State separation, one can say that presidential candidates should not be evaluated according to their religion. American citizens, regardless of religious beliefs, have the right to establish their political views without undergoing the same religious prejudice that they wish to eradicate in the society.
Saturday, February 8, 2020
Chiquita Brands Inc - Research Paper Example Corporate Ethics The strategy for business ethics in Chiquita Brands was begun in 1998 when the company engaged the professional services of SmithOBrien to craft and implement a CSR policy for the company. The first comprehensive CSR report was released in 2004. (SmithOBrien website). Chiquita BrandsÃ¢â¬â¢ corporate commitment speaks of the corporate values of integrity, respect, opportunity and responsibility as the embodiment of what they are and what they do. The company defines integrity as ethical and lawful business communicated in an open and straightforward manner (Kotler and Lee, 2005). Respect is seen as fair and respectable treatment of people. They recognize that the growth and development of their employees is the key to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s success. They take pride in their services and make sure that these exceed customer expectations. As much as they uphold the primacy of their customers, they recognize that their accountability is to all stakeholders, including emp loyees, suppliers, shareholders, communities and the world. (Chiquita website). At Chiquita Brands, corporate social responsibility is an integral part of their global business strategy. They make it a point to live up to the requirements of SA 8000, one of the more credible and verifiable social accountability standards (developed by Social Accountability International), by regularly including the SAI assessment in their corporate responsibility reports. Their openness on issues about their social, environmental and financial performance is highlighted in these reports. (Chiquita website). As part of their pursuit of these corporate commitments, Chiquita Brands has implemented an anti-retaliation policy to encourage the reporting or raising of concerns about potential misconduct and other ethical issues. This policy is available in six key languages to make sure it is understood by employees, contractors and vendors in most Chiquita locations. (Chiquita website). CSR Issues Involvi ng Chiquita Brands Notwithstanding the implementation of a corporate responsibility policy sometime after 1998, a number of violations or infringements resembling CSR violations have been reported and documented involving Chiquita Brands. On of these was the conviction of Chiquita Brands in 2007 by a US court of illegal financial dealing with Colombian terrorists in the form of Ã¢â¬Å"protection moneyÃ¢â¬ during the period 2001-2004. $25 Million Fine The court slapped a fine of $25 Million and five-year probation, and was required to hire a permanent compliance officer. Under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act, the fine would have been almost $100 Million, but the court rendered a much lesser penalty in consideration of ChiquitaÃ¢â¬â¢s self-disclosure and full cooperation (Annual Report 2010). The situation in Colombia is atypical of businesses engaged in landed estates for their production, as in banana production. Where the country is under-developed and the econ omy is struggling, this would have been an ideal location to operate a wide-area plantation because of the low cost of agricultural work (Vellema, 1999). Protection Money Most such areas, however, are characterized by the presence of insurgents who are also members of the local community and who feed on instigating for peasant rights, as in Panama and the Philippines (Vellema, 1999). There is no way an organization
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Architectural Design Considerations of a Light Warehouse Essay Warehousing warehousing is the receiving, storage, and delivery of goods. Receiving Ã¢â¬â receiving is the acceptance of goods with a degree of accountability therefor. Storage Ã¢â¬â storage is the safekeeping of goods in a warehouse or other depository. Delivery Ã¢â¬â delivery is the transfer of goods to the transportation carrier or customer. Distribution Ã¢â¬â distribution is a function of warehousing which includes the preparation and delivery of goods according to plan or special order. Supply chain efficiencies depend upon the efficiency of logistics including transportation and warehousing operations. Warehouse efficiencies depend upon a combination of warehouse design, layout, infrastructure, systems, process and people. Warehouse Design element aims to maximize the utility of space, equipment and efficiency of operations. We will briefly cover the various elements of a warehouse design and understand their importance. In basic functional aspects, a warehouse function consists of Material receipts including unloading, unpacking and inspection, put away and Storage of materials in various categories of storage locations, systems updating, pull materials for dispatch and delivery of materials after processing. Warehouse Location, Layout and Building The location of a warehouse should ideally be situated in a flat ground. The location should be easily approachable and in a area suited for this nature of business. Locations closer to markets or to national highways would be ideal. Public transportation and communication infrastructure should also be available. The layout of the building should be designed to accommodate fleet parking, and enable containers to drive in and drive out easily. Any time two containers should be able to pass through on the path without any interruption. There should be enough free space for vehicles to maneuver. The layout should also provide for other utility, safety and security operations. Building is normally constructed using galvanized metallic sheets mounted on C Section girdles. The flooring should be RCC concrete with weight bearing capacity as per requirement of the load to be calculated in each case. The ground should be flat, even and smooth surface to facilitate MHE movements and dust free. The roof height would be a major consideration to be able to install multi vertical storage racking installation. The walls and roof should be designed with suitable lighting panels and ventilators for air exchange fitted with bird cages. The number of loading and unloading docs and placement of these docs play an important role in the design of operations and efficiency of operation. All weather docks and the facility should enable 24 hours operations. Dock Levels. The docks should be equipped with dock levelers and all these have to be installed during construction phase itself. Ramps have to be provided to facilitate movement of forklift etc. Lighting design will depend upon the layout and the racking design. Internal Layout Internal layout design will be built taking into account the operational process, nature of goods, volumes of transactions both inbound and outbound, storage types, in house operations involving put away and pull sequences and process requirements including packing, kitting etc and the availability of floor space coupled with building layout design of inbound and outbound docks. The design aims to maximize space utilization, minimize MHE movement and Manpower movement. Types of Storage Types of storage are determined by the nature of cargo. Depending upon the cargo whether finished goods, raw material parts etc, the types of storage can vary from bulk stock, block stock, racking, pallet racking, shelf racking, binning, unit pick or loose pick face, carton pick etc. The storage types vary with nature of materials with different types of storage designs for drums, pallets, tires, cartons, tube and rods etc. Racking Designs Material Handling Equipment Racking Design takes into account the storage type, storage unit, volume and weight coupled with the available floor space and roof height to design system which maximizes the storage capacity. Put away and picking process and transactional volumes are also taken into consideration. The inventory profile study would include detailing of number of SKUs in each category of fast moving, slow moving or other criteria as per the nature of business and the storage type would be designed as per the inventory profile and the process. Racking designs are very many and varies with the type of industries and nature of inventory. Normal racking designs include pallet racking on multiple levels. You can have shelving, binning or combination of bulk stock and forward pick face racking designs. Block stack racking and other types of high density racking can be found in FG warehouses. Mezzanine store binning and shelving rack designs are normally designed for spare parts and small parts. Highly automated racking designs can have automatic retrieval systems and conveyors in the warehouse. Material Handling Equipments are specified based on rack design coupled with pallet design, nature of cargo, weight and the warehouse layout etc. Forklifts, reach trucks, hand pallet jacks, trolleys are normal Material handling equipments in normal warehousing operations. Warehouse Layout Design Sizing the Space Requirements Warehouse layout sizing is a critical aspect of planning a new facility or re-designing an existing building. Many times organisations start from a fixed view of what size the facility will be, and most times the square footage is based on affordability. The problem with this, is that the building may end up be to big, and therefore more expensive or to small and put operational constraints into the facility before the design even gets off the ground. Warehouse Layout and Sizing: The correct way to size the facility is from the inside, that way the actual size required will fit the operational requirements, and will ensure that all available space is used and you are not paying for unused space. Estimating Space Requirements: Short and long term, based upon forecasts, historical usage patterns, and projected changes. Developing new layouts to maximize usage of space. Short- and long-range sizing of individual areas: racks, shelving, automated systems, docks, staging, offices, and support. The final sizing needs to come from the operational requirements of the building, this can only come from modelling the design. Key Factors to Consider during Warehouse Sizing Order Picking: Methods for Piece Pick, Case Pick, and Pallet Pick Operations. Deciding on the amount of space you will need is not just about how much product you wish to store. The type of picking you intend carrying out is a fundamental part of the decision process. The methods for order picking vary greatly and the level of difficulty in choosing the best method for your operation will depend on the type of operation you have. The characteristics of the product being handled, total number of transactions, total number of orders, picks per order, quantity per pick, picks per SKU, total number of SKUs, value-added processing such as private labelling, and whether you are handling piece pick, case pick, or full-pallet loads are all factors that will affect the decision on how much space will be required. Therefore when you have:- Full pallet picking you will need more racking space than open floor space. Lots of case picking you will need more ground floor pick faces, than you will need for full pallet picking and you may also need a case to pallet consolidation floor area. Lots of small quantity piece picking you will need packing pallet consolidation areas on the floor. Holding requirements include defining the physical size of the inventory on hand. Unless the on-hand total is fairly stable across the year, it is usually preferable to plan for a high but not peak inventory level. To fully utilize the space, it is important to determine how product needs to be stored (e. g. , floor stacked, pallet rack, shelving, case flow) and how much of each fixture type will be required. Cube data (length ? width ? height) for each product is a very useful kind of information for many aspects of capacity planning. Workflow requirements encompass everything from how product arrives to how it leaves the facility and everything in between. The objectives of this aspect of planning are to minimize product handling, to reduce travel as much as possible, and to minimize the resource requirements (labor, packaging, transportation) to move the product to the customer. Among the factors to consider are the following: (1) Link the way product arrives with where it is to be stored (location capacity). If possible, store all of a product in one location and pick from that location as well. This does not work if stock rotation matters (expiration dates, serial number, or lot control issues). 2) Locate the highest-volume products (greatest number of orders, not physical size) closest to the outbound shipping area to minimize the travel required to pick and ship orders for them. (3) Because vertical travel is always slower, locate as many products as possible on or close to the floor. (4) Allow for staging space to handle product that is in transit, such as items waiting to be put away. Warehousing was supposed to disappear with L ean Manufacturing. This has rarely occurred but the nature of warehousing often does change from storage-dominance to transaction dominance. Warehousing buffers inbound shipments from suppliers and outbound orders to customers. Customers usually order in patterns that are not compatible with the capabilities of the warehouse suppliers. The amount of storage depends on the disparity between incoming and outbound shipment patterns. In addition, the trend to overseas sourcing has increased the need for warehousing and its importance in the supply chain. | Design StrategiesOne key to effective design is the relative dominance of picking or storage activity. These two warehouse functions have opposing requirements. Techniques that maximize space utilization tend to complicate picking and render it inefficient while large storage areas increase distance and also reduce picking efficiency. Ideal picking requires small stocks in dedicated, close locations. This works against storage efficiency. Automation of picking, storage, handling and information can compensate for these opposing requirements to a degree. However, automation is expensive to install and operate. The figure below shows how different transaction volumes, storage requirements and technologies lead to different design concepts.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Staphylococcus aureus Life History and Characteristics: Staphylococcus aureus is a gram positive bacterium that is usually found in the nasal passages and on the skin of 15 to 40% of healthy humans, but can also survive in a wide variety of locations in the body. This bacterium is spread from person to person or to fomite by direct contact. Colonies of S. aureus appear in pairs, chains, or clusters. S. aureus is not an organism that is contained to one region of the world and is a universal health concern, specifically in the food handling industries. Diseases: The most common health concern associated with S. aureus is food poisoning caused by the release of enterotoxins, even in small doses, into food. Release of less than 1 microgram of toxin is sufficient to contaminate food enough to illicit symptoms of food poisoning. The infective dose of toxin is generally present when food is contaminated with an excess of 100,000 bacteria per gram of food. The intensity and variety of symptoms resulting from S. aureus food poisoning differ from individual to individual, but some of the most common symptoms are nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramping, and prostration (complete physical or mental exhaustion). It usually takes 2 or 3 days to recover from S. aureus food poisoning, but in some instances individuals will require more time to fully recover. Even though S. aureus is mainly associated with food poisoning, the bacterium can penetrate the skin or other mucous membranes to invade a range of tissues which will cause a variety of infections. Superficial infection of the skin can cause boils, impetigo, styes (infection of the glands or hair follicles of the eyelids), folliculitis, and furnacles. All of these infections are charac... ...ood to above 60 degrees C and storing food below 7.2 degees C are two effective ways of controling S. aureus growth in food. The most important recent epidemiological information concerning this organism involves the increasing resistance to antibiotics. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is the most common of these antibiotic resistant organisms. The effects of MSRA are the same as any other S. aureus infection, however, MSRA infections are a difficult to treat because there are few effective antibiotics available. MSRA infections are generally not life threatening, however in some extreme cases death can occur. References: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/hip/Aresist/mrsa.htm http://www.bact.wisc.edu/Bact330/lecturestaph http://vm.cfsan.fda.gov/~mow/chap3.html http://www.bacteriamuseum.org/species/staphaureus.shtml http://www.dermnetnz.org/index.html
Monday, January 13, 2020
SOFTWARE ENGINEERING PROJECT Ã¢â¬â I INTRODUCTION: The goal of this paper is to analyze about three major software projects namely Ã¢â¬ ¢ The London Ambulance System Ã¢â¬ ¢ The Virtual Case File Ã¢â¬ ¢ The Automatic Baggage System By analyzing these software projects and the software engineering principles followed, the key factors responsible for the software projects failure can be understood. Each of these projects has failed miserable as they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t follow proper software engineering principles. In this term paper the following projects have been studied and reason for their failures are identified.Finally there is a comparison off all the three software projects studied. The methodology followed in writing this term paper is reading the following reference materials available in the internet and extracting the key points for the failures of the software projects. The papers referenced for writing the following term paper are 1. H. Goldstein. Who Killed the Virtual C ase File? IEEE Spectrum, Sept. 2005, pp. 24Ã¢â¬â35. 2. Statement of Glenn A. Fine, Inspector General, US Dept. of Justice, 27 July 2005. 3. A.Finkelstein and J. Dowell. A Comedy of Errors: the London Ambulance Service Case Study. 4. Report of the Inquiry into the London Ambulance Service (February 1993), by A. Finkelstein, 5. Richard de Neufville. Ã¢â¬Å"The Baggage System at Denver: Prospects and Lessons,Ã¢â¬ Journal of Air 6. Barry Shore. Ã¢â¬Å"Systematic Biases and Culture in Project Failures,Ã¢â¬ Project Management Journal CONCLUSION: The conclusion after studying these three papers, for any software projects the good principles of software engineering should be followed. The software development process should be properly planned with achievable and realistic deadlines. All the three projects had poor planning with unrealistic deadlines. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Great importance should be given to the requirements gathering phase and it should not be changed during the middle of the d evelopment Ã¢â¬ ¢ Developers should develop the projects with proper coding standards so that there is no issue during the integration of different modules. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Time critical projects should require critical and solid reasoning as well as good anticipation of problems and perform risk management. The schedule of the software projects should have good portion of time in testing the software product developed. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Finally, as far as possible keep the complexity of the system to manageable levels and tested effectively. LONDON AMBULANCE SYSTEM In October 1992 the Computer Aided Despatch (CAD) system developed by Systems Options was deployed for the London Ambulance System (LAS). The goal of the software system was to automate the process of the ambulance service for the London Ambulance System (LAS) in the city of London, United Kingdom.The implemented project was a major failure due to variety of factors. The Each component of good state of the art has been ignored, each guid eline of the Software engineering has ignored by the management and authoritiesÃ¢â¬â¢ neglected basic management principles. The working of the LAS can be summarized as: the system gets request by phone calls and sends ambulance based on nature, availability of resources. The automatic vehicle locating system (AVLS) and mobile data terminals (MDT) was used to perform automatic communication with ambulances.Some of the major reasons for the failure of the London ambulance system can be stated as: Ã¢â¬ ¢ The deadline given for the completion of the project was six months. The project of such big magnitude cannot be completed within a small deadline. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The software was not fully developed and incomplete. The individual modules were tested, but the software was not tested fully as a integrated system. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The resilience of the hardware under a full load condition had not been tested before the deployment of the software. The flash cut over strategy was used to implement the system which was a high risk and moreover it didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have any backup systems to revert on failure. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Inappropriate and unjustified assumptions were made during the specification process of the project. Some of the few assumptions that were made are : ? Complete accuracy and reliability of the hardware system. ? Perfect location and status information. ? Cooperation of all operators and ambulance crew members. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Lack of consultation with the prospective users of the system and subject matter experts. The Software requirement specification was excessively prescriptive, incomplete and not formally signed off. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The London Ambulance system underestimated the difficulties involved in the project during the project blastoff phase. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Inadequate staff training. The crew members were not fully trained on the operation of the new software and their prior experience was not used in the newly developed software. The Report of the Inquiry into the London Ambulance Service by Anthony Finkelstein also gives us more information about the failure of the system. Some of the are listed below as follows: It states that Ã¢â¬Å"the CAD system implemented in 1992 was over ambitious and was developed and implemented against an impossible timetableÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬ ¢ In addition, the LAS Committee got the wrong impression, that the software contractor had prior experience in emergency systems; this was misleading in awarding the contract to systems options. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Project management throughout the development and implementation process was inadequate and at times ambiguous. A major project like this requires a full time, professional, experience project management which was lacking. The computer system did not fail in a technical sense, the increase in calls on October 26 and 27 1992 was due to unidentified duplicate calls and call backs from the public in response to ambulance delays. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬Å"On 4th November 1992 the system did fail. This was cause d by a minor programming error that caused the system to crashÃ¢â¬ . VIRTUAL CASE FILE SYSTEM The primary goal of the Virtual case file (VCF) system was to automate the process of FBI paper based work environment, allow agents and intelligence analysts to share vital investigative information, and replace the obsolete Automated Case Support (ACS) system.In ACS tremendous time is spend in processing paperwork, faxing and Fedexing standardized memo. Virtual case file (VCF) system was aimed at centralizing the IT operations and removes the redundancy present in various databases across the FBI system. In September 2000 the FBI Information technology upgrade project was underway. It was divided into three parts. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The Information Presentation Component Ã¢â¬ ¢ The Transportation Network Component Ã¢â¬ ¢ User Application Component The first part involved distribution of new Dell computers, scanners, printers and servers.The second part would provide secure wide area networks, al lowing agents to share information with their supervisors and each other. The third part is the virtual case file. The Virtual Case File system project was awarded to a US government contractor, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). The FBI used cost plus Ã¢â¬â award fee contracts. This project was of great importance because the FBI lacked the ability to know what it knew; there was no effective mechanism for capturing or sharing its institutional knowledge. This project was initially led by former IBM Executive Bob E. Dies. On 3th December 2003, SAIC delivered the VCF to FBI, only to have it declared dead on arrival. The major reasons for the failure of the VCF system can be summarized as: Ã¢â¬ ¢ The project lacked clearly defined schedules and proper deadlines, there was no formal project schedules outlined for the project and poor communication between development teams that was dividing into eight teams to speed up the project completion. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The softwa re engineering principle of reusing the existing components was ignored. SAIC was developing a E Ã¢â¬â mail like system even though FBI was already using an off Ã¢â¬â the Ã¢â¬â shelf software package. The deployment strategy followed in implementing the system was flash -cutover. It is a risky way a deploying a system as the system would be changed in a single shot. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The project violated the first rule of software planning of keeping it simple. The requirement document was so exhaustive that rather of describing the function what it should perform it also stated how the functions should be implemented. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Developers coded the module to make individuals features work but were not concerned about the integration of the whole system together.There was no coding standards followed and hence there was difficulty in the integration process. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The design requirement were poorly designed and kept on constantly changing through the development phase. The high level documents including the system architecture and system requirements were neither complete nor consistent. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Lack of plan to guide hardware purchases, network deployments, and software development. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Appointment of person with no prior experience in management to manage a critical project such as this was grave mistake, appointment of Depew as VCF project manager. Project lacked transparency in the work within the SAIC and between SAIC and the FBI. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Infrastructure including both the hardware and network was not in place to test thoroughly the developed virtual case file system by SAIC which was essentially needed for flash cut off deployment. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The requirement and design documentation were incomplete, imprecise, requirement and design tracings have gaps and the maintenance of software was costlier. Ã¢â¬ ¢ According to the report by Harry Goldstein, Ã¢â¬Å"there was 17 Ã¢â¬Ëfunctional deficienciesÃ¢â¬â¢ in the deployed Virtual Case File SystemÃ¢â¬ .It didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have the ability to search for individuals by specialty and job title. All these above factors contributed to the failure of the Virtual Case File System which wasted a lot of public tax payersÃ¢â¬â¢ money. AUTOMATIC BAGGAGE SYSTEM The automatic baggage system designed for the Denver International Airport is a classic example of a software failure system in the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s. With a greater airport capacity, the city of Denver wanted to construct the state of art automatic baggage handling system. Covering a land area of 140 square kilometer the Denver airport has 88 airport gates with 3 concourses.The fully automated baggage system was unique in its complexity because of the massive size of the airport and its novel technology. The three other airports that have such systems are the San Francisco International Airport, International airport in Frankfurt and the Franz Joseph Strauss Airport in Munich. This project is far more complex than any other projects, because it has 12 times as many carts as in exiting comparable system . The contract for this automatic baggage system was given to BAE automated systems. In 1995 after many delays, the baggage system project was deployed, which was a major failure.The baggage carts derailed, luggage was torn and the system completely failed. But the system was redesigned with lesser complexity and opened 16 months later. GOALS OF THE PROJECT: The system calls for replacing the traditional slow conveyor belts with telecars that roll freely on underground tracks. It was designed to carry up to 70 bags per minute to and from baggage check-in and checkout at speed up to 24 miles/hour. This would allow the airlines to receive checked baggage at their aircraft within 20 minutes. The automatic baggage system was a critical because the aircraft turnaround time was to be reduced to as little as 30 minutes.The faster turnaround time meant more quickly the operations and it increases the productivity. The installers are quoted has having planned Ã¢â¬Å"a design that will allow baggage to be transported anywhere within the terminal within 10 minutesÃ¢â¬ . PROJECT SCOPE: The International airport at Denver three concourses and initially it aimed at automating all the three concourses. But later the concourse B was alone designed to be made automatic. The project was later redefined to handle only outbound baggage. It does not deal with the transfer of bags. STAKE HOLDERS:The major stake holders in the project can be identified as: Ã¢â¬ ¢ The Denver International Airport Management. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The BAE Automated Systems. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The Airline Management. The project blastoff according to Robertson & Robertson states that during this phase it has to identify all the stakeholders and ask their inputs for the requirements. In the ABS System the Airline Management was not made to involve in the blastoff meetings to provide their inputs and excluded from the discussions. As well as the risk should be anal yzed properly during the blast off which was also a draw back in this system.This was a perfect example of failure to perform risk management. The cost estimation of the project was incorrect as it exceeded the estimated cost during the development. So, Aspects in which the project blastoffs were not addressed can be summarized as follows: Ã¢â¬ ¢ The underestimation of complexity Ã¢â¬ ¢ Poor stakeholder management Ã¢â¬ ¢ Poor Design Ã¢â¬ ¢ Failure to perform risk management There were only three Ã¢â¬Å"intenseÃ¢â¬ working session to discuss the scope of the project and the agreement between the airport management and BAE automated systems.Although BAE automated systems had been working in the construction of the baggage system in concourse B for United Airlines, the three working session is not sufficient to collect all the requirements for the construction of the automate baggage systems. This shows clearly a poor software engineering principle because requirements are the k ey base factors for the project to be built upon. Reports indicate that the two year deadline for the construction of the automatic baggage system is inadequate. The reports that showed that project required more than two years are as follows: Ã¢â¬Å"The complexity was too high for the system to be built successfullyÃ¢â¬ by The Baggage System at Denver: Prospects and Lesson Ã¢â¬â Dr. R. de Neufville Journal of Air Transport Management, Vol. 1,No. 4, Dec, pp. 229-236,1994 Ã¢â¬ ¢ None of the bidders quoted to finish the project within two years. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Experts from Munich airport advised that a much simpler system had taken two full years to complete and it was system tested thoroughly six months before the opening of the Munich airport. Despite all this information the decision to continue with a project was not based on the sound engineering principles.ABS REQUIREMENT DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION The Automatic Baggage System constructed by the Airport Management was a decision taken two years before the opening of the new Denver International Airport. Initially the concourse B meant for United Airlines was supposed to be constructed by the BAE Automated Systems and all other airlines had to construct their own baggage handling mechanism. Later the responsibility was taken by the Denver Airport Management to construct the Automatic Baggage System.The integrated nature of the ABS system meant that airport looks after its own facility and has a central control. The BAE plan to construct for the concourse B was expanded to the other three concourses which was a major change in the strategy of the airport construction. Moreover the airport management believed that an automated baggage system would be more cost effective than manual system given the size of the massive airport. During the development phase the requirements kept on changing which added additional complexity to the project. Though in the contract there was learly statement no change in requiremen t would be accommodated, they accepted the changes to meet the stakeholder needs. For example the addition of the ski equipment racks and the addition of maintenance track to allow carts to be serviced without being removed from the rails and able to handle oversized baggage. The baggage system and the airport building shared physical space and services such as the electrical supply. Hence the designers of the physical building and the designers of the baggage system needed to work as one integrated team with lot of interdependency.Since the construction of the airport was started initially the building designers made general allowances in the place where they thought the baggage system would come into place. Hence the designers of the automatic baggage system have to work with the constraints that have already been placed. For example sharp turns were supposed to be made due to the constraints placed and these were one of the major factors for the bags to be ejected from the carts. The design of the automatic baggage system Ã¢â¬Å"Systematic Biases and Culture in Project FailuresÃ¢â¬ , a Project Management Journal is as follows. Luggage was to be first loaded onto the conveyor belts, much as it is in conventional baggage handling system. Ã¢â¬ ¢ These conveyors would then deposit the luggage in the carts that were controlled by computers. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The luggage would travel at 17 miles per hour to its destinations, as much as one mile away. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The automatic baggage system would include around 4000 baggage carts travelling throughout the airport under the control of 100 computers with processing power up to 1400 bags per minute. However the design with the above architecture failed as it was not able to handle variable load.It was also suffering from various problems they are identified as: Ã¢â¬ ¢ The software was sending carts out at the wrong times, causing jams and in many cases sending carts to the wrong locations. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The baggage system continued to unload bags even though they were jammed on the conveyor belt. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The fully automated system may never be able to deliver bags consistently within the times and at the capacity originally promised. Ã¢â¬ ¢ In another case the bags from the aircraft can only be unloaded and loaded into the unloading conveyor belt is moving, this belt moves only when there are empty carts.Empty carts will only arrive after they have deposited previous loads; this is a cascade of queues. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Achieving high reliability also depends on the mechanical and the computers that controlled the baggage cartsÃ¢â¬â¢ reliability. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Errors may occur during reading or transmitting information about the destinations. There may be various scenarios during which these errors can take place. Some of them are listed as below. 1. The baggage handler may place the bag on the conveyor with the label hidden. 2. The baggage may have two labels on it. one from the previous flight. 3. The labels may be muti lated or dirty. . The label may not lie in the direction of the view of the laser reader. 5. The laser may malfunction or the laser guns stop reading the labels. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The reading of information is vital in the automatic baggage system since the whole system is dependent on the information transmitted from reading of the labels and this information must be transmitted by radio to devices on each of the baggage carts. Ã¢â¬ ¢ There is no available evidence of effective alternative testing of the capability of the system to provide reliable delivery to all destinations under variable patterns of load.This variable demand made in the system is famously called as the line balancing problem. That is, it is crucial to control the capacity of the system so that all lines of flow have balanced service. This problem can be avoided by eliminating situations where some lines get little or no service, to avoid the possibility that some connections simply do not function or in other words cont rol the emptiness. This failure also was because the entire system was developed within a two year deadline and hence the automatic baggage system was not testing completely with variable loads.Lack of testing also is a major reason for this failure. These all are the major factors that led to the failure of the automatic baggage system in Denver international airport. Subsequently a much less complex system was design and implemented sixteen months later. This newly designed system had the following functionality as follows: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Serve only one concourse, the concourse B for United Airlines. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Operate on half the planned capacity on each track. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Handle only outbound baggage at the start. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Not deal with transfer bags. COMPARISON OF ABS, VCF and LAS PROJECTS All the management teams of the three projects wanted the software system to be built quickly without taking into consideration of the system requirement. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Hence all the system had unrealistic deadli ne to be met. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Because of these unrealistic deadlines the system didnÃ¢â¬â¢t follow proper software engineering standards and principles. Ã¢â¬ ¢ In all the three projects during the project blastoff phase the requirements gathering activity was not proper and incomplete, due to which the requirements kept on changing during the development phase. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Lack of consultation with the stake holders and prospective users. All the three projects Software requirement specification was excessively prescriptive, incomplete and not formally signed off. Ã¢â¬ ¢ All the three systems were not properly tested before deployment due to lack of time and tight schedules. The timeline was not reasonable for any of the projects. Ã¢â¬ ¢ There was poor communication between the developers, customers and the clients in all the projects. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The identification of the stake holders and collecting requirements from the stake holders and subject matter experts was not proper and incomplete. ASPECTS |ABS |VCF |LAS | |DEPLOYMENT STRATEGY |It was deployed in a single phase|Flash Cutover strategy was used in|Flash Cutover strategy was used | | |with a major failure of the |replacing the ACS System |in replacing the existing System | | |system | | | |PROJECT SCHEDULE/DEADLINE |Had a very tight schedule of two |Over ambitious schedule |Had a very tight deadline, two | | |years to implement | |years(1990 Ã¢â¬â 1992) | |PROJECT PLANNING |Poor Planning, The system was |Poor Planning and constantly |Good Engineering practice were | | |decided to be developed two years|changing milestones |Ignored | | |before the completion of the | | | | |airport | | | |SOFTWARE REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATION |Kept on changing to meet the |Slowly changing design |On the fly code changes and | | |needs of the stake holders |requirements |requirement changes | |PROJECT BLASTOFF |There was only three intense |The project blastoff phase didnÃ¢â¬â¢t |It left out the view of the | | |session to colle ct the |collect all the requirements |customers and subject matter | | |requirements which is inadequate |properly |experts | |REUSABLITY |This system didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have any back |They already had e-mail like |The existing communication | | |up system to reuse |system which could have been |devises in the ambulance system | | | |reused but new mail system was | | | | |written | | |CODING/TESTING |The system was not tested with |The software system followed the |Backup dispatch system not tested| | |variable load |spiral developmental model and not|and the overall software not | | | |tested as a whole |system tested | |SYSTEM DESIGN |The system design was too complex|The system was not base lined and |The System design was incomplete | | | |kept on changing | | |BUGS |System was unable to detect bugs |59 issues and sub issues were |81 Know Bugs in the Deployed | | | |identified |System | |ASSUMPTIONS/ |It was dependent on computers |No major assumptions were made in |Perfect location information and | |DEPENDENCY |that controlled the baggage cars |this project |dependent on the MDT | | | | |communications | PERSONAL REFLECTION: Ã¢â¬ ¢ After reading all the three projects I now understand that development of software not necessary has to be coding the software properly but there are various aspects apart from coding like requirement gathering, risk analysis, testing. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The requirements gather should plays a vital role in software development and it has to be properly made in consultation with all the stakeholders, customers of the software. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Understanding the complexity of the software being developed. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Proper planning and schedule of events for the development activities. Deadlines for the software development should be realistic and achievable Ã¢â¬ ¢ Use of any of the software engineering models for the development like waterfall model, BohmsÃ¢â¬â¢ spiral model, incremental work flow model or agile software development. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Last but not the least the software developed should be thoroughly tested for finding out flaws in the development and fixing them. REFERENCES: 1. H. Goldstein. Who Killed the Virtual Case File? IEEE Spectrum, Sept. 2005, pp. 24Ã¢â¬â35. 2. Statement of Glenn A. Fine, Inspector General, US Dept. of Justice, 27 July 2005. 3. A. Finkelstein and J. Dowell. A Comedy of Errors: the London Ambulance Service Case Study. Proc. 8th Int.Workshop on Software Specification and Design (IWSSD96), pp. 2Ã¢â¬â4, Velen, Germany, 1996. 4. Report of the Inquiry into the London Ambulance Service (February 1993), International Workshop on Software Specification and Design Case Study. Electronic Version Prepared by A. Finkelstein, with kind permission from the Communications Directorate, South West Thames Regional Health Authority. 5. Richard de Neufville. Ã¢â¬Å"The Baggage System at Denver: Prospects and Lessons,Ã¢â¬ Journal of Air Transport Management, Vol. 1, No. 4, Dec. 1994, pp. 229Ã¢â¬â236. 6. B arry Shore. Ã¢â¬Å"Systematic Biases and Culture in Project Failures,Ã¢â¬ Project Management Journal, Vol. 39, No. 4, 2008, pp. 5Ã¢â¬â16.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
aIRBUS AND bOEING: a cOMPARISON by Jeffrey Everette Hardee A Paper Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for PUP 598 - Air Transportation and Regulation ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY September 2004 It may be argued that the next major challenge in the business of air transportation, beyond the invention of heavier-than-air flight and jet-powered planes, is the worldwide separation of the market between two mega-corporations. Airbus and Boeing currently dominate about 90% of the air transportation market with very few major competitors on the horizon. However, Canadian-based Bombardier is creeping up in its business jet market share of 27% (Bombardier press release, 12/4/2003). The competition between AirbusÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This agreement is currently being renegotiated further in an attempt to eliminate all government subsidies. The US continues to charge Airbus with an unfair advantage, while the EU has charged Boeing with receiving equal, if indirect, subsidies. If these negotiations fail, both parties have indicated their willingness to take their case to the World Trade Organization (WTO) for arbitration, but industry insiders believe tha t this is an empty threat as both companies would benefit the most without WTO oversight. The newest models in production by Airbus and Boeing represent their competing views of the future of the industry. The Airbus A380 is their solution to growing traffic between major hubs. Their plans for the A380 signify their current goals of reducing operating costs, increasing range, reducing fuel burn, and reducing noise and emissions (Airbus, Aircraft Families Ã¢â¬â Introduction A380 Family). The Boeing 7E7 is their solution for non-stop flights between secondary cities. 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Saturday, December 28, 2019
Maggie Kuhn is best known for founding the organization often called the Gray Panthers, a social activist organization raising issues of justice and fairness for older Americans. She is credited with the passage of laws prohibiting forced retirement and with reform in health care and nursing home oversight. She worked for many years with the Young Womens Christian Association (YWCA) in Cleveland and then with the United Presbyterian Church in New York City, doing programming for social causes including on race, womens rights, and the elderly.Ã (Note: the organization called Gray Panthers was officially known at first as the Consultation of Older and Younger Adults for Social Change.) Selected Maggie Kuhn Quotations Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã My goal is to do something outrageous every day. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Few people know how to be old. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Stand before the people you fear and speak your mindÃ¢â¬âeven if your voice shakes. Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã We who are old have nothing to lose! We have everything to gain by living dangerously! We can initiate change without jeopardizing jobs or family. We can be the risk-takers. Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã A healthy community is one in which the elderly protect, care for, love and assist the younger ones to provide continuity and hope Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã Were missing a historical perspective that older people can provide. My generation has to be heard and heeded Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã Learning and sex until rigor mortis. Ã¢â¬ ¢ When you least expect it, someone may actually listen to what you have to say. Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã There is a pervasive societal bias in the U.S., which contends that old age is a disaster and a disease.... On the contrary, it is a part of the continuum of life and oug Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã Weve had enormous success all out of proportion to our numbers. We have set a pace. Weve been very outspoken in our positions, and weve caught the attention of the media. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Power should not be concentrated in the hands of so few, and powerlessness in the hands of so many. Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã Many things started by a person disappear when the person dies, but Id consider my job a failure if that happened. Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã [What] I dream of and yearn for is that the Gray Panthers will continue to be on the cutting edge of social change, and that the young and old together will continue to work for a just, humane and peaceful world. Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã about a protest in Washington, DC:Ã The police came on their horses and rode right into us, you know. That was frightening, those enormous beasts and those hard shoes. A blow could kill you. Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã about the name Gray Panthers:Ã ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a fun name. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s a certain militancy, rather than just a docile acceptance of what our countryÃ¢â¬â¢s doing. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Old age is not a diseaseÃ¢â¬âit is strength and survivorship, triumph over all kinds of vicissitudes and disappointments, trials and illnesses. Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã Im an old woman. I have gray hair, many wrinkles, and arthritis in both hands. And I celebrate my freedom from bureaucratic restraints that once held me. Ã¢â¬ ¢The worst indignity is to be given a bedpan by a stranger who calls you by your first name. Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã If you are not prepared, retirement at 65 makes you a non-person. It deprives you of the sense of community that has previously defined your life. Ã¢â¬ ¢ By the year 2020, the year of perfect vision, the old will outnumber the young. Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã Old people as elders of the tribe should be seeking and safeguarding the survival of the tribeÃ¢â¬âthe larger public interest Ã¢â¬ ¢ Men and women approaching retirement age should be recycled for public service work, and their companies should foot the bill. We can no longer afford to scrap-pile people. Ã¢â¬ ¢ There must be a goal at every stage of life! There must be a goal! Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã What she wanted on her tombstone:Ã Here lies Maggie Kuhn under the only stone she left unturned.